News reels 3

Under construction
Until around 1960 the Dutch looked massively at the news-reels in the Cineacs, after which until the 1980s the function of that “Polygoon journaal” was taken over by the news-reels of the national TV stations. Many Dutch people also (very often) looked at the news broadcasts of Flemish, French and German TV stations (depending on their place of residence). Now that the TV stations have moved from the ether to the glassfibre they can follow even more TV news. Nevertheless, a black and white summary may give a good picture of the image, to the broad public, of the Netherlands. The commercy was initially less important. Therefore, the following summary.
News-reels (samenvattingen):
1940 – 1945 Nederland in WWII        1u13 min. b/w  Polygoon journaals,    Dutch.
1945 – 1950 Nederland 1                   1u30 min. b/w  Polygoon journaals,   Dutch.
1950 – 1955 Nederland 2                   1u27 min. b/w  Polygoon journaals,   Dutch.
1955 – 1960 Nederland 3                   1u29 min. b/w  Polygoon journaals,   Dutch.
1960 – 1965 Nederland 4                   1u30 min. b/w  Polygoon journaals,   Dutch.
Years ’40:
Very soon after the war came the following films. Many Dutch people saw those films on their weekly “night”. After all, they were still poor and the cinema was cheap.

1940 German attack,                        23:57 min.                                    German/English,
1940 Battle on the Grebbenberg,       1h01 min. Dutch Docu channel,          Dutch.
1942 Battle on the Javasea,                6:48 min. N.I. Oorlogsdoc.,                Dutch.
1945 Liberation of the Netherlands,  18:02 min. Canadian army,                  Dutch.
1945 Liberation of Amsterdam,           9:50 min. Diversen,                            Music.
1945 Return of the dutch Airforce,      7:54 min. Diversen,                            Music.

The trauma of the Netherlands:
Given their feelings of guilt (and the fear of persecution for them) to the massacre of Dutchmen and Indonesians in concentration camps in Asia (see “Bridge over the River Kwai”) japanese occupiers of the former East-Indies (Dutch India, now Indonesia) surrendered to the Merdeka movement of Sukarno). Thus, there was a very chaotic situation in which quite horrible things happened. So there was an urgent need for a legitimate authority that could bring order. So a very big and urgent problem was wich “authority” was there (then) “legitimate”:
* The Dutch government in which the European Netherlands dominated?
* The East Indies (Inlands law) Parliament, which already existed befor WWII?
* The Merdeka movement (of Sukarno) who had co-operated with Japan, in WWII?
(Also a problem was Sukarno’s position, because he was – rightly or wrongly – seen by most of the others as someone who had committed treason in wartime).
So there followed round table conversations. But the results thereof were selective (or not) accepted by the Merdeka Movement. The Merdeka movement further demanded a one-state solution. Most Indonesians didnot understand that, they preferred the existing federal structure. In that situation most Indonesians sought support in the Moluccas movement. This movement (in the Netherlands – today – wrongly seen as an exclusive Ambonesian organisation) formed later, in the Netherland, the RMS.
(Many people moved to the Netherlands after 1948. 
For this kind of reasons (most  of the agreements of the Round Table gave almost no real results). So the Netherlands mobilized the Seven December Division and sent it to Indonesia to restore public order.
* On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. So it is the day the United States declared to participate in WWII.
Merdeka = Independence; Tan air kita = Our country of birth; Persian = (Indonesian) Unit; RMS = Republic of Maluku Selatan (Republic of South Moluccas).
The end of the Dutch trauma:
The Seven December Division, composed of old members of the KNIL and Dutchmen who had fulfilled their duty of service (in the Netherlands), is being sent to Korea along with part of the war fleet. This was under great pressure from the USA. The availability of that division was one of the reasons why the USA pushed the Netherlands so much to leave Indonesia soon. For the first time, Dutch troops were deployed under a strange commandment outside and outside their kingdom!
Although the division had almost completed its task (Pacification in Indonesia), this action was regretted by most Dutch people. But the “good name” of the United States in the Netherlands was damaged.
1948 The Seven December Division, arrives in East India.
1949 On December 27, Indonesia leaves the kingdom, and then demands New Guinea.
1950 A Netherlands army in Korea,
1950 The war in Korea,
1953 The end of the war in Korea,
The last “round table” meeting of both parliaments in the knightshall in the Hague
On december 27, 1949 East-India (Indonesia) leaves the kingdom of the Netherlands
Years ’50:
The film about the B company was a contribution of the Americans. Dutch militairy saw it until the beginning of the 1960s when they were called “under the weapons”). Also the watershed delayed the return of prosperity and the Suez crises (longer routes, ie higher prices in trade) increased the price of living in the Netherlands.
1950 Ondergang v/d B-compagnie,      28:38 min. b/w     American army,     Dutch.
1953 Watersnood,                                 19:49 min. b/w    Polygoon journaal, Dutch.
1953 Watersnood,                                 18:39 min. b/w    Radio Unie & ANP, Dutch.
1956 Suez crisis & Hongaarse opstand, 7:59 min. b/w    Mixture.     English, Dutch subt.
Years ’60:
The reconstruction of the Netherlands is underway, The Marchal assistance is paid for. This is the end of the “older” history. Culturally, the Anglo-American currency became increasingly dominant. Slowly, the commercials (bonuses, etc.) became more important than ideals. The TV conquered the Netherlands. The Cineac’s disappeared slowly, but the news reels came home by TV! In this time the Cuba crises caused a real shock in the Netherlands. The assassination of Kennedy and the acquisition of New Guinea by Indonesia caused uncertainties. The spring in Prague came on top of it. It all motivated the, so called ’60 movements, to wake up. (A slogan: “Make love, no war” returned) ?
1962 the Cuba crisis,                               4:35 min. b/w,  ???            English, Dutch subt,
1962Nieuw-Guinea under the Uno,        1:43 min. b/w,                                 Dutch,
1963 Manmoetwet implemented,
1963 Kennedy killedin Dallas, USA,       1:17 min. colour,                             English,
1963 Nieuw-Guinea Indonesian,
1968 Spring in Prague,                           2:56 min. b/w  ???                          Music.
Years ’70:
This is a period of discontent and reflection in the Netherlands. The time for discussion and thought about the future. There was a lot of consultation with Suriname and step by step (The Netherlands ware prosperous) there came a transitional arrangement and a financial compensation. In fact, a small majority of the population in Suriname seems to want to stay in the kingdom as a country so the big minority demonstrated. As a result there grew in the Surinamian parliament a small majority for a total separation from the Netherlands. So Surinam became independent in 1975. As a side effect, the flow immigrants from Surinam (still having dutch their passports) to the Netherlands became strong. 
Many settled in Amsterdam (Bijlmermeer).
1970 Bezetting van de residentie van de Indonesische ambassadeur door de RMS.
1971 Protests in Paramaribo,
reedomp koninkrijksdag demonstreert men in Parimaribo voor de onafhankelijkheid.
1974 Surinam asked independency, 2:22 min.
de Antillen sluiten zich er niet erbij aan.
1975 Surinam leaves the kingdom,   3:23 min.
Op 25 november verlaat Suriname, in harmony, het koninkrijk.
The second generation Moluccans (RMS) saw the big differences in the ways in which the (now prosperous) Netherlands treated the separation of Suriname and the treatment that (by the then poor Netherlands) their parents received in the late 1940s. This led to very violent protests by the RMS.

This all activated the younger geration. The old guys of the 60-ties got fresh compagny.
The final trigger was a tragic incedent at three miles island, USA.
1975 Train hijacking by RMS,                      4:14 min. b/w,     N. I. Beeld/Geluid, Dutch.
1977 Train hijaching by RMS,                      3:46 min. colour, N. I. Beeld/Geluid, Dutch.
1978 Attack Drenthian parliamentby RMS,  2.07 min.
1979 Peace March in Utrecht,

Years 80

1985? referendum in the Antillians.

Han Tiggelaar