Limburg

The provincies are the traditional foundation under the Netherlands. In the year 1579 zeven of them founded the republic of the seven united provinces (The Union of Utrecht). Limburg did not exist at that time. Some parts of the present province (called the lands over the river Meuse) were under the direct rule of the States-General in the Hague. After Napoleonic times these lands were united (not all) to form one province. In 1886 that province joined the kingdom of the united Netherlands.

limburg

The province borders in the north to the province of Gelderland in the east to the (German) Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the south to (Belgian) Limburg, on the southwest by the (Belgian) Province of Antwerp and in the north west to the Dutch province of Northern-Brabant.
The capital is called Maastricht. The population density is 522 inh. / Km2

vlag Limburg                       Provincial arms                          Provincial Flag

Media: (Radio L1) & Limburg (L1-TV) & Teletext.
Limburgia in a birds eye & Weather in Limburgia & Weather warnings in Limburgia.
Provincial gouvernement &  The Limburgian “states” (parliament).
Tourisme in Limburg.

Hymn (dialect): Bronsgroen eikenhout

                   Dutch                                               English
-1-                                                        -1-
Waar in ‘t bronsgroen eikenhout,         Where in the green oakwoods,
‘t nachtegaaltje zingt,                           the little nightingale sings,
over ‘t malsche korenveld                    in the tender cornfields
‘t lied des leeuw’riks klinkt,                   the song of the larks sounds,
waar de hoorn des herders schalt       the shepherd blares the horn
langs der beekjes boord:                     along the creeks banks:
daar is mijn Vaderland,                        there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                      Limburg my dear place!
daar is mijn Vaderland,                        there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                      Limburg my dear place!

-2-                                                        -2-
Waar de breede stroom der Maas,      Where the wide stream of the Meuse,
statig zeewaarts vloeit,                        stately seaward flows,
weeldrig sappig veldgewas                  lush juicy field crop grows
kostelijk groeit en bloeit,                      and abounded flourishes,
bloemengaard en beemd en bosch,    flowers and meadow and forest,
overheerlijk gloort:                               delicious glimmers:
daar is mijn Vaderland,                        there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                      Limburg my dear place!
daar is mijn Vaderland,                       there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                      Limburg my dear place! 

-3-                                                        -3-
Waar der vad’ren schoone taal klinkt  Where the beautiful language of our fathers
met held’re kracht,                               sounds with clear strength
waar men kloek en fier van aard         where we proudly by nature
vreemde praal veracht,
                       strange pageantry despise

eigen zeden,  eigen schoon,               own customs, own beauty,
‘t hart bekoort                                      captivates the hearts:
daar is mijn Vaderland,                       there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                      Limburg my dear place!
daar is mijn Vaderland,                       there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                      Limburg my dear place!

-4-                                                        -4-
Waar aan ‘t oud Oranjehuis,               Where the old House of Orange,
‘t volk blijft hou en trouw,                     remains in love and faithfulness,
met ons roemrijk Nederland,               to our glorious Netherlands,
één in vreugd en rouw,                        the people is one in joy and grief
trouw aan plicht en trouw aan god,     fidelity in duty and loyalty to god
heerscht van Zuid tot Noord:               reigns from South to North:
daar is mijn Vaderland,                       there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                     Limburg my dear place!
daar is mijn Vaderland,                      there is my fatherland,
Limburgs dierbaar oord!                     Limburg my dear place!

Note !:
With “outsiders” traditionally only the first verse is sung.

History of (Dutch) Limburg

Old times
The history of Limburg starts in the Neolithic (ca. 4000 BC), when from the east tribes are entering the fertile löss area of Southern Limburg and settle along the river the river Meuse. Remnants of the settlements of these farmers and of their their culture (the band ceramics) are found in the surroundings of the towns of Sittard and Geleen. After them the “standvoet and klokbeker tribes came in that area. In the Bronze Age Celtic tribes raided Limburg but were stopped by the Germanic tribes of the Eburones who settled in present Limburg.

Roman times
About 50 BC. the Romans moved into the area and brought it under their control. Limburg was then inhabited by Romans, Gallo-Romans and new Germanic inhabitants, the Sugambren. The Gallo-Roman culture urged by the main centres, the towns Trajectum ad Mosam (Maastricht) and Coriovallum (Heerlen). Estates arose in addition (villas) and roads were built. The most important route was the road from Cologne via Maastricht to the coast of the North Sea. In the 5th century the Romans were expelled and Limburg was occupied by the Franks.

Frankish times
The battle against the Romans made the Germanic tribes to chose combined leaders. Their nations started thereby gradually to grow together, in the present Nether-lands, into the Saladian Salian Franks (Salic = salt/sea and Frank = free). In present Germany the Rupardian (from their word for river) Franks were formed. These provinces or nations (sea people versus river people) grew different. Christianity, which was already introduced in Roman times (St. Servatius was already the bishop of Maastrichtin the 4th century), revived in the 7th century (by Wiro and Plechelmus in Central Limburg). Limburg belonged in that time mainly to the diocese of Liege. The Frankish kings had possessions in Limburg and stayed there often (Meerssen and Maastricht). In 843 Limburg was taken by the kingdom of Lothar and 870 into the German (East-Frankish) Empire. In the 9th century, it suffered badly from marauding Vikings.

Fragmentation
In the centuries that followed the dissolution of the Frankish Empire, Limburg felt into small parts that were ruled by local lords exercising independent authority. These areas were also divided in lots of “free” lordships and “depended” areas under the German Empire. The Dukes of Brabant, the Counts of Gelre and the bishops of Liege also held areas in Limburg. This political fragmentation continued until 1795 and was a typical feature of the province. In Maastricht, the Duke of Brabant and the Bishop of Liège shared custody. By the end of the 13th century there were wars between Brabant and Gelderland (the Limburg Succession Wars) over Limburg. The Count of Guelders was defeated in 1288 at Woeringen and had to give southern Limburg (an area  in present Belgium) to Brabant. But he kept his possessions in Northern- and Central Limburg.

Countries over the Meuse
In the 14th century, several wars have been conducted in Limburg, in particular to the possession of Valkenburg, which, like other parts of Limburg (the “Lands of Overmaze”) came to Brabant. In 1543 Charles V conquered the duchy of Guelders, but parts of Central and Northern Limburg came in the hands of the Duke of Cleves and Jülich also numerous smaller areas remained independent. The situation has since been amended in: 1648 (the Peace of Münster), 1661 (Partage traktaat), 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht). Limburg was in 1568 also one of the battlefields in the Eighty Years’ War (invasions of Orange siege of Maastricht by the Duke of Parma, 1579). In 1632 Frederick Henry captured Venlo, Roermond and Maastricht in Partagetraktaat (it were parts of Southern Limburg) for the Republic. In 1713 most parts of Northern Limburg were conquered by Prussia (now Germany).

French time
In 1794 the French troops concurred Maastricht which was the beginning of the French era. The French government presented the departments of Lower Maas and Roer, made an end to the administrative fragmentation and implanted a number of rules that turned out to be a lasting basis for a lasting unity.

Dutch province
In 1815 the French occupation came to an end. As a part of the united Kingdom of the Netherlands the undivided Limburg had participated in the economic recovery, which largely was due to the dirigisme of William I (construction of roads and canals, promoting the industry, etc.). Nevertheless the province chose in 1830 for Belgium. Only Maastricht (with surroundings) was preserved. Willem I appointed mr. Gericke to rule this small territory in his name. The rest of the province came under control of a director appointed by the Provisional Board that resided in Hasselt (Belgium). THat board chose delegates to the National Congress, then for the House of Representatives and recognized Leopold I as king. These delegates opposed the majority and the consequences of the Treaty of the XXIV Articles (April 19, 1839) that broke the present Dutch province away from Belgium and brought her under the title of duchy in the dual position of a Dutch province and a member of the German Bond. Maastricht and Venlo fell outside that Bond. In 1848 Limburg chose two delegates in the Frankfurt Parliament. One of them, Baron of Scherpenzeel-Really, placed himself at the head of a movement wanted to separate Limburg fully from Begium and the Netherlands to get the full transition to the German Federation. This separatist movement died very quickly. So to the constitution, there was that ambiguous political status. Only after the the end (in 1866) of the German Bond it ended. In 1867, Bismarck declared that Limburg was free of all ties with the German lands.

Modern times to add:

Read also: Maastrichter Staar.

Guard of the Limburgian Hunters:
Inauguration of the Limburgse Jagers & March of Limburg Limburgse Jagers.
The Limburgian Guard in action by the flooding (1953) in Sealandia.

On the central market:
Battle song (sports) and triumph song (sports) of Holland & Anthem of Maastricht.

Limburgian songs (in dialect):
Wie sjoon us Limburg is & Mooi Limburg & Limburgse liedjes & Bestel mar & Loeënde klokken & Wie ick nog een jungske was & Daan goon de Lempkes aon.

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Han Tiggelaar

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